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Creating personas of website visitors is a powerful technique for helping increase the usability and customer centricity of a web site as part of a user-centred design (UCD) process. I've been a big fan of using personas since around 2003 I was introduced to it by Matt Dooley, a customer experience manager in the HSBC Global E-business team. At the time, they were following reports by Forrester on creating personas.
This shows that they're certainly not new, indeed their equivalent of using customer thumbnails for customer segmentation or ad campaigns has existed for decades. However, I find they're still not so widely-used when giving examples on training courses.
A simple definition of a web persona is: "a summary of the characteristics, needs, motivations and environment of a key type of web site user".
A more specific definition originally from the Foviance/Seren guide to Segmented personas is:
“A persona is a fictional character that communicates the primary characteristics of a group of users, identified and selected as a key target through use of segmentation data, across the company in a usable and effective manner.
This ultimately enables the company to design the best user experience for its customers at all touchpoints, which is a key success factor in today’s business environment”.
This download for Smart Insights Expert members is aimed at helping businesses, agencies and consultants improve their use of design personas and also to enable companies to specify their business requirements from personas when using internal or external resources.
At their simplest, Personas are essentially a ‘thumbnail’ description of a type of person. Here are two simple examples for a music publisher selling music clips and sheet music to a business audience.
You can see that these are quite different types of people who will have quite different needs. Some companies simply use personas at this level. True design personas have a more detailed narrative and summary of customer goals and characteristics as some of the examples later in this post show.
The best way to understand the power of web design personas is with examples. Here are two classic examples I used in training when personas first started being used for creating more customer-centred web designs.
Our new member resources on persona including our persona research guide and template have many more recent examples including our own Excel template download with a B2C and B2B example.
Imagine the challenge of making a consumer site about paint engaging. These examples from Agency.com which I started using for training in around 2005, show how they used personas to make the Dulux web design more customer-centred. Here are some details of the project shared by Dulux and their agency who still use the approach today and you can still see it on the site.
The objectives of this persona project were:
Target audience based on research insights for the user-centred design:
6 personas were created with 5 female reflecting the main audience of the site and involvement in the buying process. Each has not only a name, but a label to characterise them.
Examples of Personas developed:
FIRST TIME BUYER Penny Edwards, Age: 27, Partner: Ben, Location: North London, Occupation: Sales Assistant
PART TIME MUM Jane Lawrence, Age: 37, Husband: Joe, Location: Manchester, Occupation: Part time PR consultant
SINGLE MUM Rachel Wilson, Age: 40, Location: Reading, Occupation: Business Analyst
Each persona is encapsulated by a statement showing how they approach interacting with the brand, for Penny it is summarised by the statement:
“I’ve got loads of ideas and enthusiasm, I just don’t know where to start”
A storyboard was developed with illustrates the typical “customer journey” for each persona and these informed the final design as shown in the figures below.
This example shows the clear inspiration message with tools to help with selection of products in the right sidebar.
I like the way that Dulux extend the key messages across their customer journeys.
Here are their Google Sitelinks which highlight the proposition of different types of content nicely.
Dulux even extended their use of personas offline into TV ad campaigns based on the original web concepts.
I hope you found this example interesting - unfortunately the original source is no longer available although Dulux do still use the "Inspiration" message on their redesigned site.
Within Business-to-business marketing, these are often known as buyer personas.
This example is brief but illustrates the main type of characteristics that should be thought with a B2B persona including:
The image (double click for a larger example) shows example personas created by design agency cScape for the CIPD for a training directory (used with client permission). You can see that the definition of the persona includes both business and personal issues and goals along with key messages or services relevant for this persona. Typical of B2B personas the 8 personas developed in this example encompass a range of company sizes, personas and responsibilities within the buying unit.
Customer scenarios (customer journeys) can and should be developed for different personas.
Not creating customer journey or content maps is a mistake I have seen in many businesses, these are essential to getting the most out of personas to operationalise them since they look at specific information needs, search terms used and how content formats and types available on the site will answer these questions.
Patricia Seybold in her book: The Customer Revolution, explains them as follows:
A customer scenario is a set of tasks that a particular customer wants or needs to do in order to accomplish his or her desired outcome.
You can see that scenarios can be developed for each persona. For an online bank, scenarios might include:
Each scenario is split up into a series of steps or tasks before the scenario is completed. These steps can be best thought of as a series of questions a visitor asks. These questions identify the different information needs of different customer types at different stages in the buying process.
The use of scenarios is a simple, but very powerful web design technique that is still relatively rare in web site design. Evidence of the use of scenarios and persons in sites are when the needs of a range of audiences are accommodated with navigation, links and search to answer specific questions. Clear steps in a booking process are also an indication of the use of this approach.
The approach has the benefits of:
Finally, I have some top-level guidelines and ideas on what can be included when developing a persona. Start or end with giving your persona a name. The detailed stages are:
Once different personas have been developed who are representative of key site visitor types or customer types, a primary persona is sometimes identified. Wodtke (2002) says:
“Your primary persona needs to be a common user type who is both important to the business success of the product and needy from a design point of view – in other words, a beginner user or a technologically challenged one”.
She also says that secondary personas can also be developed such as super-users or complete novices. Complementary personas are those that don’t fit into the main categories or display unusual behaviour. Such complementary personas help ‘out-of-box thinking’ and offer choices or content that may appeal to all users.
Thanks to our expert commentator, Richard Sedley of Seren for contributing these.
Please share your thoughts or experiences with personas, including negative ones!
By Dave Chaffey
Digital strategist Dr Dave Chaffey is co-founder and Content Director of Smart Insights. Dave is editor of the 100+ templates, ebooks and courses in the digital marketing resource library created by our team of 25+ Digital Marketing experts. Our resources are used by our Premium members in more than 100 countries to Plan, Manage and Optimize their digital marketing. Free members can access our sample templates here. Please connect on LinkedIn to receive updates or ask me a question. For my full profile and other social networks, see the Dave Chaffey profile page on Smart Insights. Dave is a keynote speaker, trainer and consultant who is author of 5 bestselling books on digital marketing including Digital Marketing Excellence and Digital Marketing: Strategy, Implementation and Practice. In 2004 he was recognised by the Chartered Institute of Marketing as one of 50 marketing ‘gurus’ worldwide who have helped shape the future of marketing.
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